No one has ever been able to answer. Or choose to ignore. The British navy had already bombarded Alexandria in July after a series of riots broke out, aimed against the many European residents of the city — who were associated with preferential treatment and decades of economic exploitation.
A full day of shelling, and the fires that followed, destroyed swathes of the city, as documented by Italian photographer Luigi Fiorillo in the days and weeks afterwards.
British troops entered and occupied the city as Orabi and his forces fled. In Britain, Prime Minister William Gladstone appointed Wolseley to head an expeditionary force to invade Egypt by land and secure the all-important Canal route.
After the successful campaign in Egypt, Wolseley next joined the failed British expedition to try to rescue Gordon, Governor-General of Sudan, at Khartoum, where the Mahdist uprising threatened British and Ottoman Egyptian ambitions to control the entire Nile and exploit the mining opportunities of the surrounding deserts and mountains.
The relief effort — which used Thomas Cook steamers to carry supplies — arrived two days after Gordon had been killed. Britain would spend several more decades occupying Egypt and trying to subdue the Sudan. Because they all go together. You can find the programme and paper abstracts hereand see the hashtag Displaying Egypt on Twitter for some live tweets and follow-up discussion.
My own talk at the colloquium bridges some work that I present near the end of the Photographing Tutankhamun book going to print next week! I wanted to make a point about the twin phenomena of imperialist nostalgia and imperialist amnesia. All archaeology was and is political. But Tutankhamun played a major role in the diplomatic dance between Britain and Egypt as Egypt tried, not for the first or last time, to determine its own path as a fully-fledged nation-state.
The silence that hung over that part of British and Egyptian history in and, frankly, now seems to me a perfect example of the entrenched amnesia where the colonial and imperial past is concerned — in Britain and elsewhere.
No violence, no suppression, no injustice, no economic or political interests at stake. What exactly do British audiences think all those uprisings — from the Gold Coast to India, by way of Egypt and Sudan — were rising up against? Which histories do we remember, which histories do we teach in our schools, and which histories do we present in our museums?
Photographs need to be treated with the same scrupulous care we give to any other historical document. What happened to it afterwards? What assumptions went into taking it, how many people were involved, in what language did they communicate? That chamber had been opened for almost a month, and rigged for electricity supplied by the Egyptian government for the purpose.Get the membership of Decypha Premium Package to access more exciting features including advanced analytical tools and the Pro 10 package.I love you maha
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Go back Continue. Home People Profiles People Profile. Check all the 20, individuals in Egypt Check The List.
Log In. Login attempt was not successful. Please try again. Password :. Forget your password? Enter Characters :. Request a Trial. Georgia and S. Sandwich Isls. Helena St. Comments :. Login x. Enter Characters:. Ask for your trial account. Request a Trial x. Job Title:. Contact Us x. Preferred contact method :. Email Phone.He is considered to be one of the greatest actors in the middle east. He was also known as Malek El Terso "The King of the Third Class" - a reference to his popularity among the poor, who bought third-class seats in movie theatresas "Wahsh Ash shashah Al Arabiyah the Monster of the Arab Silver Screen" in honor of his various roles of beloved hero, as Farid Bay "Sir Farid", an informal title of respectand as Abu el-Banat "father of all girls", a reference to his having six daughters and no sons.
In a career spanning almost 50 years, Shawqi starred, produced, or wrote the scenario of over films - more than the films produced collectively by the whole Arab world - in addition to theatre, television and video plays.
His popularity covered the whole of the Arab Worldincluding Turkey where he acted in some films there, and directors always addressed his as ' Farid Bay' Sir Farid as a sign of respect. As he worked with over 90 Film directors and producers. For the first ten years he typically cast as a villain. By the late s his name alongside that of the late Mahmoud el-Mileegy guaranteed a box-office success. In he changed that image forever, playing the leading role in Ga'aloony Mujriman "They Made Me a Criminal"his own script in which he tackled the problem of homeless children and the first crime thus exposing the failure of government policy and the corruption of state run orphanages and young offenders institutions.
Disliked by the establishment, the film was later awarded the State Prize; Shawqi went on to collect 10 best actor awards in many festivalsand four other awards for his scripts in the next thirty years.
Critics referred to him as the " John Wayne " or " Anthony Quinn " of Egyptian cinema and of the Arabic speaking World", and to the masses he was the Beast of the Silver Screen, who championed the underdog, especially women, and the dispossessed using an effective mixture of cunning, physical strength, personal charm, and unbending principles, to overcome the wicked aggressors. With an illiteracy of over 80 per cent at the time, the "Screen Beast" personified the masses' dreams of defeating the wealthy, who were above the law thanks to an unjust class system.
Screenwriter Abd-el-Hay Adeeb once had to rewrite a scene in a film after it had been released: Shawqi's character was slapped on the back of the neck, which is a sign of contempt in southern Mediterranean countries; the cinema audience in the city of Assiut rioted in protest, destroying the building. InYoussef Chahine 's film al-Ardh "The Land" ended with the main character being dragged to his death behind the horse of a corrupt police officer.
Audiences called for the "Beast" - Shawqi - to come to his rescue, despite the fact that Shawqi did not appear in that film. A number of critics spent a great deal of time discussing the phenomenon as it was clear that Shawqi lived in the psyche of the nation as an image greater than reality and he represented hope and implementation of justice during the totalitarian military rule in the s and 60's. With the influence of Egyptian cinema on the whole of the Middle East, the "Beast of the Silver Screen" had a similar status in all Arabic-speaking nations, where the main entertainment was, and still to a large degree, Egyptian films.
Film producers and financiers called Shawqi - Malek el-Terso - or the King of the Third Class Terso is an Egyptian slang word derived from the Italian word referring to the cheap third class seats in the cinema from which the bulk of the box office takings came.
Shawqi was born in July in El Baghghala neighborhood of Cairo's popular quarter of Al-Sayyedah Zynab, where the majority of residents were the terso- film goers when Egyptian cinema started turning into a big industry. Shawqi worked as a civil servant as the Second World War broke out. He was given small parts in Ramsis Theatre group headed by Youssef Bay Wahby, then he worked with Anwar Wagdy doing small parts on the silver screen. They were divorced four years later, when he married his second wife, dancer Saneya Shawqi, whom he also divorced in By the NLA became The 20 Theatre as the members grew to 20 all became household names in Egyptian theatre and cinema for decades to come.
The group specialized in presenting Chekov's plays, and Shawqi excelled in playing the leading parts - later on he loved to play classic parts in screenplays of novels by Nobel Prize holder Naguib Mahfouz.
One of them was playing the role of Sultan in the film Bidaya wa nihaya. With success in theatre, and small parts in films, Shawqi left his post at the civil service in Few months later the 20 Theatre became the nucleus of the Higher Institute of Drama.
With his third wife, singer and actress Huda Sultanwhom he married inthey made a famous partnership in more than 80 films. The marriage lasted 18 years and produced two daughters Maha and Nahed who is a successful film producer in her own right.
He was working on a script for his daughter Abir in film dealing with homeless young people just before he died. Shawqi married Huda Sultan and had two daughters with her; one of them, Nahid Shawqiis now a movie producer.
Inhe married Soheir Tork, they stayed together until he died, she gave him two daughters Abir and Rania.
Recent Activity. Recent history Saved searches. Abstract Available from publisher site using DOI. A subscription may be required. Al-Housami SA 1. Maha Shawky Search articles by 'Maha Shawky'. Shawky M.
El-Morsy K. Abdel-Ghany H. Affiliations 1 author 1. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. The study was conducted on 6 patients who required bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for correction of mandibular retrognathism.
The patients were scanned using CBCT 1 week preoperatively, and 6 months postoperatively. The differences between pre- and postoperative images were measured and the ratios of different hard to soft tissue movements were calculated. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean measurements postoperatively. The ratio of the mean hard to soft tissue movement after mandibular advancement was The mean decrease in the mentolabial fold MLF depth was 1.
The soft tissue changes related to mandibular advancement would appear to be fairly predictable and follow their underlying skeletal structures in Also, increase in facial convexity has an important influence on changes in the position of the lower lip as well as on changes in MLF depth and MLA. Comparison of soft-tissue profiles in Le Fort I osteotomy patients with Dolphin and Maxilim softwares. Post-operative soft tissue changes in patients with mandibular prognathism after bimaxillary surgery.
Soft tissue profile changes after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular advancement: a systematic review. A systematic review on soft-to-hard tissue ratios in orthognathic surgery part II: Chin procedures.Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline.
Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: To evaluate the effect of preoperative versus postoperative administration of oral Dexamethasone on postoperative complications including pain, edema, and trismus following lower third molar surgery. View PDF. Save to Library. Create Alert.
Launch Research Feed. Share This Paper. Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper. Figures and Tables. Citations Publications citing this paper. References Publications referenced by this paper. Katzung Medicine A Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Pre-emptive effect of dexamethasone injection and consumption on post-operative swelling, pain, and trismus after third molar surgery.
Recent Activity. Recent history Saved searches. Abstract Available from publisher site using DOI. A subscription may be required. Search articles by 'Maha Shawky'. Shawky M 1. Mohamed Mosleh Search articles by 'Mohamed Mosleh'. Mosleh M. Jan AM. Jadu FM. Affiliations 1 author 1. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook.
The most commonly reported complication is neurosensory disturbances NSD. The inferior alveolar nerve is by far the most commonly affected but sporadic reports of NSD of the lingual nerve also exist.
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The aim of this meta-analysis is to estimate the incidence of lingual nerve NSD following bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. A systematic search of the English literature was conducted in February including several databases and using numerous MeSH terms.
Article selection was based on preset criteria. Then pertinent data were collected and the incidence of the complications was calculated. Three articles were included in the meta-analysis.To evaluate the effect of preoperative versus postoperative administration of oral Dexamethasone on postoperative complications including pain, edema, and trismus following lower third molar surgery. Pain was measured using VAS, edema was measured using a graduated tape between 4 fixed points in the face, and the mouth opening was measured using a graduated sliding caliper.
In this study pain and trismus records were similar and statistically nonsignificant in both groups. The results had proven that preoperative administration was superior when compared to postoperative administration regarding edema 0. The surgical extraction of lower third molars is the most frequent intervention in oral surgery [ 1 ].
This procedure is often associated with significant postsurgical sequelae that may have both biological and social impact. Besides severe complications such as dysaesthesia, severe infection, fracture, and dry socket, patients frequently complain of pain, swelling, and limitation in mouth opening Trismus throughout the postoperative course due to the inflammatory response following the surgical injury [ 2 ].
Surgical removal of lower third molar can vary in difficulty and in the degree of trauma caused to the surrounding tissue. The greater amount of tissue injury leads to an increased amount of inflammation in the peri-surgical area.
Three-Dimensional Soft Tissue Assessment Following Mandibular Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy.
Swelling may be particularly significant when the surgery is prolonged and when large amounts of bone, gingiva, and oral mucosa are manipulated. Careful surgical technique is effective in limiting tissue damage and swelling; therefore, attention should be taken to avoid prolonged periods of tissue elevation and retraction [ 3 ].
Postoperative pain following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar is a localized inflammatory pain of varying intensity. The removal of impacted mandibular third molar with the resultant tissue and cellular destruction brings about the release and production of several biochemical mediators; these mediators involved in the pain process are histamine, bradykinin, and prostaglandins which are a group of biologically active fatty acids [ 4 ].
Pain after surgery of impacted lower third molar is reduced by using analgesics and long-acting local anesthetics. Another method of reducing postoperative pain is the proper surgical technique with careful flap reflection and using irrigation for cooling [ 5 ].
Postsurgical edema is a normal physiological reaction to insult and injury. When body tissues are injured, regardless of the cause, the normal physiologic response is inflammation, leading to edema. The amount of the postoperative edema varies according to local factors as position of the impacted teeth, method of bone removal, haemostasis, oversuturing of the wound, or rough tissue handling and systemic factors as age, bleeding tendency, nutrition, use of drugs, or presence of diabetes [ 2 ].
The use of corticosteroids to limit postoperative edema has been advocated due to their inhibitory action on signal transduction through IL-2 receptor [ 6 ].
To control postoperative inflammation and symptoms associated, it is necessary to provide an adequate anti-inflammatory therapy [ 2 ]. The use of corticosteroids can decrease the severity of postoperative sequelae in many patients and therefore decrease morbidity after oral surgery [ 3 ].
For more than 30 years, glucocorticosteroids have been used in an attempt to minimize or prevent postoperative sequelae after surgical removal of impacted third molars and several studies [ 7 — 10 ] have been published in the literature on this subject.
Some studies [ 711 — 13 ] compared the use of Dexamethasone in different formulations one hour before surgery in patients undergoing extraction of third molars and observed the postoperative edema, trismus, and pain. From this study, it was concluded that there was no significant difference between the two formulations of Dexamethasone in surgery of third molars in relation to its use as a preoperative medication to reduce swelling, trismus, and pain.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative versus postoperative administration of oral Dexamethasone on postoperative discomfort including pain, edema, and trismus following lower third molar surgery in order to allow a better welfare of the patient and to return the patient to the normal activity following the surgery.